Stab Binding

The stab binding is an elegant and simple binding method that you can use with single sheets or signatures. This 4-hole bind is quick and binds all sheets and the covers together at the same time.

Materials – Stab binding

  • 2 sheets decorative scrapbook paper, cut to exactly the size of the pages
  • Sheets of paper for pages – can be folded into signatures or loose leaf
  • Embroidery thread
  • Beeswax (recommended)
  • Awl or push drill (example uses a 2mm push drill)
  • Tapestry needle or curved bookbinder’s needle (recommended)

Prep – Stab binding

Prep is simple for this one; cut your sheets for pages and your covers to the exact size of the closed book that you want. You can use folded signatures for pages, if desired, just make sure that when folded, the signatures are exactly the same size as the cover. A paper jig will also be helpful for punching binding holes.

Example Prep

For a Book that is 6″ tall by 5″ wide when closed:

  • 2 sheets decorative paper for covers, 6″ x 5″
    • For a double cover book: 2 sheets decorative paper, 6″ x 10″, folded in half
  • 20 – 40 sheets paper for pages, 6″ x 5″
    • To use signatures, 10 – 20 sheets paper, 6″ x 10″, folded in half, 4 sheets stacked together
    • Can use as many sheets as desired for book, books that are more than 3/4 thick tend to be more difficult to bind
  • Paper jig with binding holes punched 1″ in from the spine side, 4 holes along the height of the spine

Binding Steps

Arrange the pages and covers as you want the book to be when finished (covers with correct side out, pages within).

Align the jig along the spine side of the book and stab through all layers of covers and pages along the binding hole marks on the jig. For thicker books, it will be helpful to split the book in half and stab binding holes on each half separately. Make sure the jig is appropriately aligned on both halves and flush with the spine edge of the book.

Select, trim and wax thread for binding. For this book, bound the book twice and used 6 times the spine height for the length of thread. Thread a binding needle, leaving a short tail. Alternately, you can double the thread. Make sure your binding holes are wide enough for the thread and needle to pass through three times each hole. Widen the holes with the awl, if needed. We’ll make three stitches at each binding hole, one passing between each hole and the other next to it or the edge of the book, and one up from the binding hole around the spine.

Open the book to a middle page. Pass the needle and thread through one of the middle holes from the inside of the book to the outside front cover. Leave a tail that is long enough to tie off on (in this example, about 3 inches.

Close the book on the tail. Use a binder clip to clip all the pages and covers together on the opposite side of the spine.

Now the fun starts 🙂

Pull the thread up over the spine on the outside front of the book toward the outside back cover. Insert the needle into the same binding hole, this time from the back cover, through to the front cover. You’ll have a loop going up around the spine at this binding hole.

Pull the thread to the next binding hole, closest to the edge of the book. Pass through the hole from the front cover all the way through to the back cover. Now there is a straight line of thread from one hole to the next on the front cover.

From the back cover, bring the thread over the spine and pass the needle through the same binding hole from the front cover through to the back cover.

From the back, bring the thread around the bottom edge of the book, back into the same binding hole, from the front to the back. This will make a straight line of thread from the last binding hole to the bottom edge of the book.

At the back of the book, bring the thread to the next hole (the first binding hole we bound). Pass the needle through this whole from back to front, connecting these two binding holes on the back of the book.

Next, pass the needle through the next binding hole (this other middle hole) from front to back. From the back, bring the thread and needle over the spine back to the front.

Insert the needle into the same binding hole, from front to back, creating the loop around the spine at this binding hole.

At the back of the book, pass the needle through the next binding hole, this one closest to the edge of the book. At this last hole, at the front of the book, wrap the thread around the edge of the book.

At the back of the book, pass the needle through the same binding hole from the back to the front. The needle will come out the front of the book. From the front of the book, pull the thread up over the spine from this binding hole to the back of the book.

At the back of the book, pass the needle through the same binding hole from the back to the front, completing the loop around the spine at this hole.

At the front of the book, pass the needle through the next binding hole, completing the connection between all the binding holes on the front of the book.

Remove the binder clip, and open the book at the page where the tail of the thread is. Clip the book again to keep these pages separate.

Pass the needle into the binding hole you started with, but instead of passing the needle all the way to the front, pass it into the book where the starting tail is. Tie off the working thread with the tail thread, tightening the knot into the middle of the book.

Clip off the ends of the thread and tuck them into the binding of the book.

Done! This is the 4- hole stab bind!

Secret Belgian Stitch Prep

The Secret Belgian Stitch is a hard cover, closed spine binding method with a unique cover that can fold all the way back. The stitch is pretty simple and I like to use watercolor paper for signatures since the cover gives a lot of sturdiness to the book.

Prepare the materials

For this binding we’ll need materials for a hard cover, stitched binding and signatures. The example images below are for a finished book that is 6″ tall, 1″ thick spine and 8″ long (from spine edge to open edge of the book).

  • Book board – 2 pieces for the covers (size in example: 6″ x 8″)
  • Book board – 1 piece for the spine (size in example: 1″ x 6″)
  • Decorative paper for the outer covers; 1″ longer and wider than the covers and spine boards (in the example: 2 sheets that are 7″ x 9″ for the covers and one sheet 2″ x 7″ for the spine)
  • Decorative paper for the interior covers and spine
  • PVA glue and brush
  • Watercolor sheets – 20 sheets for 5 signatures of 4 sheets, cut to the same height and twice the width of the covers (in the example, 16″ x 6″)
  • Waxed linen or binding thread – the number of signatures times the height of the book/ spine (in example, 5 signatures x 6″)
  • Binding needle
  • Awl
  • Metal ruler
  • Craft knife
  • Cutting mat

*Note: these prep instructions are for a book that is 6″ tall by 8″ long when closed, with a 1″ thick spine and 40 pages of watercolor paper. This book can be made in different sizes, with attention to changing the dimensions of paper and board when needed.

Use this chart to plan out your own dimensions for materials:

Your book dimensionsouter coverinner cover
Height = ____ inches
Length = ____inches

(height + 1 inch) = ____ inches
x
(length + 1 inch) = ____ inches
Make 2
(height – 0.25 inch) = ____ inches
x
(length + 0.25 inch) = ____ inches
Make 2
Spine Width = ____inches
Height = ____ inches

(height + 1 inch) = ____ inches
x
(width + 1 inch) = ____ inches
Make 1
(height – 0.25 inch) = ____ inches
x
(width – 0.25 inch) = ____ inches
Make 1
  1. This book is great to make with watercolor paper. I start with a 12″ x 18″ watercolor pad with a cardboard back.
  2. Remove the cardboard from the back and cut in half lengthwise to have two 6″ x 18″ strips. We’ll only use one in this book, put the other aside.
  3. Cut the 6″ x 18″ strip of cardboard into four pieces:
    • One 6″ x 1″ strip for the spine
    • One 6″ x 1″ strip for a closure or set aside
    • Two pieces 6″ x 8″, one for each front and back cover
  4. Remove ten sheets of watercolor paper from the pad. Cut each sheet in half length-wise to have 20 sheets that are 6″ x 18″; cut 2″ off the end of each sheet to have 6″ x 16″ sheets.
  5. Fold each sheet in half and stack 4 together to make signatures.
  6. Cut decorative paper for the outside of the covers, spine and closure. Each piece should be 1″ longer and 1″ wider than the cardboard pieces:
    • One 7″ x 2″ strips for the spine
    • One 7″ x 2″ strip for the closure
    • Two 7″ x 9″ pieces for the covers
  7. Cut decorative paper for the interior covers and spine/ closure. Each piece should be 1/4 shorter and narrower than the cardboard:
    • One 5.75″ x 0.75″ strips for the spine
    • One 5.75″ x 0.75″ strip for the closure
    • Two 5.75″ x 7.75″ pieces for the covers
  8. Prepare your work area for gluing by putting down parchment or scrap paper.

Bespoke Bookbinding II at OCCC Fall 2022

More bookbinding for beginners! We’ll practice 4 more bookbinding techniques including binding with old book covers, star books, long stitch, and decorative spines bookbinding. No previous experience needed (no need to have taken Bespoke Bookbinding I).


Class Schedule and Registration:

October 20 – November 10
Thursdays, 1:00 – 2:30 pm

Register at Orgon Coast Community College


Materials

Special materials and equipment are required for this class (click to see materials list).

Bespoke Bookbinding at OCCC Fall 2022

Bookbinding for beginners: In this class we’ll practice 4 different bookbinding methods from around the world to create our own unique sketchbooks and journals. Each class will include step-by-step instructions for each method, and live demonstration by the instructor. Create a travel watercolor journal, a sketchbook with pockets, a personalized diary, plus gorgeous decorative binding. 

Plus, extra tips and instructions for single-page books and zines on the exclusive class website.

Special materials and equipment are required for this class.
See class info and materials sheet for supplies and links.

Class Schedule

September 22 – October 13 (4 weeks)
Thursdays
1:00 – 2:30 pm

Register at Oregon Coast Community College

Coptic Stitch Bookbinding

Materials

  • 1 cardboard backed sketch paper pad, 9″ x 12″ (see prep notes above)
  • 3 sheets decorative scrapbook paper
  • Embroidery thread
  • Beeswax (recommended)
  • Awl
  • Washi tape
  • 50% glue/water solution
  • glue brush
  • Tapestry needle or curved bookbinder’s needle (recommended)
  • Ribbon or cordage for closure (optional)

Preparing the cover

You can make a cover for a sketchbook or journal from a basic sketchpad.

Step 1: Remove the binding from the paper pad. You can use a spiral bound pad or a glued pad. Hang on to everything, you can use all these pieces for the finished sketchbook.

Step 2: Use the cardboard back as the cover. Trim it down to the dimensions you want your final sketchbook to be. For this example, I’ll make a sketchbook that is 6″ wide by 9″ tall when closed. I trim down the cardboard back to two rectangles that are 6″x9″ (one for the front cover and one for the back).

Step 3: Next, trim down the sheets of paper. For a 6″x9″ book, I trim the paper to 12″x 9″. Fold four sheets of paper together to make signatures that are 6″x9″. Use a bonefolder to crease the signatures.

Step 4: To create a decorative cover with scrapbook paper, trim the paper to 2 pieces 1″ wider and 1″ longer than the final size of the book and 2 pieces the same dimensions as the final size of the book.

For this example, I cut two pieces of paper to 7″x10″ for the outer covers, and two pieces to 6″x9″ for the endpaper/ inner cover.


Steps for Coptic Stitch

As you bind the coptic stitch, it might be helpful to always keep in mind going around the previous stitch. That going around anchors each stitch, and holds each signature or cover to the rest of the text block. Here are step-by-step photos to follow along with (click images to open them and see the captions).

Jump to:

Binding the first cover and signature:

  1. Hold the cover and the first signature together, making sure the binding holes in each line up.
    • I like to hold the signature and cover with the spine edge toward me so I can flip the signature open easily as I bind.
  2. Insert the needle into one of the binding holes at the ends, starting on the inside of the signature.
  3. Leave a 5″ tail inside the signature to help tie off the thread later.
  4. Pull the thread to the outside of the signature.
  1. Pull the thread around to the outside of the cover and pass the needle through the hole from the outside.
  2. Bring the needle between the cover and the signature.
    • The signature and the cover are both threaded, but still really loose.
  3. Pass the needle around the thread that’s going between the signature and the cover.
  1. Pass the needle back between the signature and the cover, and back out again, around the thread.
  2. Insert the needle back into the binding hole it came out of.
  3. Pull the thread tight (but not too tight to rip the paper!)
  4. Use a knot to tie off the thread with the tail you left inside the signature.
  5. Move on to the next binding hole, passing the thread out from inside the signature.

All of the binding holes in this first signature and cover are worked the same as the first.

  1. Pull the thread through the signature to the outside of the book.
  2. Insert the needle into the binding hole on the outside of the cover to pull the thread into the cover, between the cover and the signature.
  3. Pass the thread around the thread connecting the signature to the cover, toward the left.
  4. Hook the needle under that thread from the right and pull tightly.
  5. Insert the needle back into the same binding hole on the signature.

Repeat these steps for all of the binding holes on the first signature/ cover

  1. For the last binding hols in the signature, begin the same as the other holes, inserting the needle in the hole from the inside of the signature.
  2. Thread through the outside of the cover and wrap the thread around the stitch you’ve made to attach the cover and signature.
  3. Instead of inserting the thread back into the same binding hole, insert the needle into the first binding hole of the next signature.

Binding the rest of the signatures

For binding the rest of the signatures, you’ll continue to go around the previous stitch to hold the signatures together.

  1. After inserting your needle into the first hole in the signature, go immediately to the next binding hole.
  2. Pull the htread through the binding hole and to the outside of the signature.
  3. Insert the needle under the previous signature stitch (in this case, the stitch holding the first signature to the cover).
  4. Insert the needle back into the same binding hole it came out of.

To keep stitches neat like little knitted V’s, pass your needle under the stitch starting from the side of the stitch closest to the end you started from and insert the needl back into the same binding hole.

Adding the Back Cover and finishing

  1. When you reach the last hole on the last signature, tie a knot to bind off the thread.
  2. Pass the needle with the thread through the binding hole to the outside of the text block.
  3. Pull tightly to keep the thread straight.
  1. Place the unbound cover over the text block, lining up the binding holes. Pass the needle through the cover from the outside.
  2. Bring the needle and thread out between the signature and the cover to the outside of the spine.
  3. Hook the needle under the thread holding the cover to the signature.
  4. Insert the needle back into the same hole in the signature it originally came out of.

Bind the nest of the cover in the same way.

  1. From the inside of the signature, insert the needle into the next hole and thread through the signature to the outside of the text block.
  2. Insert the needle into the next binding hole on the cover.
  3. Bring the thread between the cover and the signature to the outside of the binding.
  4. Pass the needle under the theread connecting the cover and the signature.
  5. Insert the needle back into the same binding hole.
  6. When you get to the last binding hole, tie off the thread and tuck away any extra ends!

Pamphlet Stitch Journals

One of my favorite activities to do with my kid and adult classes is to handbind our own sketchbooks and journals. For classes or residencies where students will use sketchbooks for practice, writing, or to make observations, this is usually one of the first activities I introduce.

Journal-making is a great activity to set the tone for the class; with so many options for choice and customization for individuality, I like to demonstrate that the preferences the students make are celebrated and choice is a standard in the class. I focus on that freedom particularly for youth students where we may also explore new skills and story-crafting.

This pamphlet binding is super simple and straight-forward, and uses a small collection of materials that I’ve been able to source somewhat inexpensively from local craft stores and online. Plus, it’s expandable, with the option to add more pages as students need them!

Another reason this is my favorite initial activity is because of the sense of wonder I usually see in most students when they finish this project and realize they’ve made an actual book! I do teach bookbinding classes for teens and adults where we dive into more sophisticated and complicated methods of binding. In those classes, the point is to practice bookbinding specifically. In my other classes that are centered more around community, story-crafting and reflection, creating a journal/ sketchbook can be the first way to dip into personal expression for the class.

I remind students in these classes that the journal they make is their book; they can put anything they want in it and they don’t have to share, so it’s a safe space to experiment, practice, fail, and try again. I’ve seen multiple students do this project and then want to spend the rest of the class period just making more books because they’re so elated to have actually made something themselves, so I always have more materials on hand.

Here’s the activity process, which can be done with most students 8 years and older. That’s the age group I’ve kept in mind for the project plan, although I’ve also made these with much younger children with some adaptations. See the end of the post for those and other adaptations to make this project accessible for all ages and abilities.

Handbound Sketchbooks/ Journals

Description:

Students will use materials to make choices and create their own sketchbooks for use throughout the class.

Goals:

  • Students will make choices from several options
  • Students will use special tools and materials for book-making
  • Students will be able to use the words and identify an awl, embroidery thread, a needle and book signatures

Materials (per student)

  • One sheet 12″ x 12″ Scrapbook paper, decorative, several options
  • 4 – 16 individual sheets of writing or sketching paper, cut to 9″x 11.5″, folded into 4 sheet signatures
  • Awl
  • Tapestry needle with large eye (No. 18)
  • 1 hank embroidery thread, various color options
  • Scissors (one pair for the whole class is usually enough)
  • Optional (for no-pocket option): Paper cutter
  • Optional (for pocket option): glue sticks

Set up:

Students should have their own individual spaces and materials to use. Place the signatures for each student, the tapestry needle, and the awl at each spot. Make separate piles of scrapbook paper in different areas of the room so that students can see the options and make choices.

Process:

  • Invite students to observe the materials at their desks and share their observations.
    • What do you think the tools are called?
    • What are the tools used for? What could be a different way to use the tools?
    • How should the tools be handled for safety?
  • Introduce the activity: we’re going to make our own sketchbooks
    • Name the tools and their use:
    • The awl is the sharp tool with the wooden handle, we’ll use that to punch holes in our paper and cover.
    • We’ll use the needle and thread to sew the pages of our book together.
    • The paper is four sheets folded together, which makes one signature.
  • Students can select their covers from the piles of paper around the room.
    note: I usually have lots of options so I make sure to tell students to look at everything and share what they find with each other.
  • After students select their cover pages, ask them to fold the page in half into the orientation they want for their book cover. Some decorative pages might have patterns that have a specific orientation, so make sure students understand that how they fold their paper is how their book will look in the end.
  • It’s helpful to also demonstrate that the cover pages are too long for the book, and so they’ll need to be trimmed down by 3″ off one end. Or, students can fold the sheet up 3″ from the edge to make two inner pockets. I ask students to make the choice of what they want to cut off or fold.
  • If not making a pocket, use the paper cutter to trim off the excess 3″ and the student can keep the scrap to make a bookmark or an even tinier sketchbook.
  • If making a pocket, use the glue stick to glue the two open edges of the pocket to the cover.

Binding the Sketchbook

  1. Use the awl to safely punch three holes into the folded edge of their cover: one about 1″ from the top and bottom edges, and one in the middle. Help students do this safely by securing their cover in their hand with one finger on either side of the folded edge.
  2. Take one signature of paper and fold it on the outside of the cover.
  3. Using the holes in the cover as a guide, punch holes in the same spots on the signature.
  4. Measure embroidery thread to 3 times the length of the spine of the cover.
  5. Thread the needle to prepare binding.
  6. Place the signature into the cover, making sure the holes line up.
  7. Sew the needle into the cover from the outside into the middle hole, going all the way through the signature as well.
  8. Pull the thread through, leaving a 3″ tail on the outside of the cover.
  9. Next, sew into one of the edge holes from the inside of the signature, pulling the thread through to the outside of the cover.
  10. Sew into the last hole on the outside of the cover and through the signature.
  11. Lastly, sew back out the middle hole going through the signature and the cover.
  12. It’s helpful to make sure the beginning tail and the needle are on opposite sides of the thread that’s passing down along the outside of the spine.
  13. Take the thread off the needle and tie the thread and the tail together to finishing the binding.

To add more pages to the sketchbook, take another signature of 4 sheets of paper, folded in half. Lay the signature along the inside of the sketchbook, near the inside of the spine and mark on the signature where the holes of the sketchbook has been punched. Use the awl to punch holes in the new signature in those spots. Place the new signature inside the sketchbook behind the signature already bound, and follow steps 7 – 13 above to bind in the next signature.

Note: The dimensions for cutting the cover paper and the signatures leaves enough room for 4 signatures to be bound into one book.

Adaptations for Accessibility

This project requires eye-hand coordination, ability to fold paper, thread a needle and sew. Students with limited dexterity may need support from other students and adults.

  • For students who cannot use the awl safely or effectively, students can point to where they want another person to use the awl to punch holes in their paper for them.
  • Students may need support with threading their needle. A needle threader or a needle with a larger eye may be useful.
  • Students may need support with folding. Having pre-folded signatures is helpful for saving time and avoiding confusion. Adult or other student help for folding the cover page will support students with folding.
  • For much younger children, adaptations can be made by using a hole punch or larger awl to make holes in the cover and signatures larger, plus a large plastic darning needle and yarn instead of thread. Adults can also hold the cover and sheet together and point to where children can sew into the binding. I’ve made this project with children as young as 24 months with adult or older child help.